Nobel Prize 2022: The Nobel Prize Week has begun. This will last for a week i.e. till October 10. Awards are given in 6 categories. On Monday (October 3), Sweden-born Svante Paibo got the honor of receiving the Nobel Prize in Medicine for the year 2022. On Tuesday, October 4, the Nobel Prize in Physics was jointly won by three scientists, Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger.
While Pabo was awarded this prize for his discoveries related to the genome of extinct hominins, or orangutans, and human evolution, Aspect, Clouser and Zeilinger were given these for their experiments with entangled photons. Wouldn’t you like to know what did these winners do which is important for human beings? How these scientists work will benefit human beings. Here we will try to find out.
What is Entangled Quantum State
Allen Aspect, John F. Closer and Anton Zeilinger have done a great job on the quantum entangled state. To understand this, you must first understand quantum. A very small amount of electromagnetic energy is called quantum in physics. The experiments of these three Nobel laureates are also based on this quantum physics. Quantum physics is used to understand the universe as well as in our everyday life. Quantum physics is that part of physics in which very small particles i.e. molecules are known.
These small particles are atoms, electrons, protons and neutrons. Its foundation was laid by Max Planck on 14 September 1900. Planck, who received the Nobel Prize, did research on black body radiation and told that light and other electromagnetic radiation energy (Magnetic Field) does not flow but moves in small parts. Using this, Einstein understood the electrical effect of light. Now three scientists, who won the Nobel of Physics of 2022, have carried it forward by experimenting on Quantum Entanglement. Entangled quantum state refers to when two particles are joined together in a certain way, no matter how far they are in space. Their status remains the same.
These scientists have told in their experiments that even when two particles are separated, they behave like a unit. The results of his experiments have paved the way for a new technology based on quantum information. This will help in practical use of Quantum Mechanics. These scientists have told in their discovery that how quantum mechanics allows two or more particles to exist in an entangled state. What happens to one particle in this entangled pair determines what happens to the other entangled particle, even if they are far apart.
For a long time, it was questioned whether this correlation between the two particles was because the particles in an entangled pair contained hidden variables, which were responsible for the results of the experiments. In the language of physics, a variable is a quantity whose value can change. In the 1960s, John Stewart Bell described mathematical inequality. He explained that if there are hidden variables in the particles, then the relationship between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value. It was named (Bell Inequalities) after him. However, quantum mechanics states that a certain type of experiment does not fit Bell’s law of inequality.
John Closer did a practical experiment with the ideas of John Bell. When he made the measurements, he supported quantum mechanics, completely breaking Bell’s inequality law. This means that quantum mechanics cannot be replaced by such a theory. which holds hidden variables accountable for the correlations between the two particles.
Even after John’s experiment, some flaws remained. After this, the entry of Alain Aspect was made in it. He developed this setup in such a way that a critical flaw in it was completely eliminated. Allen was able to swap measurement settings after the particles had left their source in an entangled quantum state, so the setting that was already in place when the particles were emitted would affect the results of the experiment. Couldn’t make an impact. Actually, by entangled quantum state, it is said that two particles join together in a certain way. However, no matter how far they are in space, their position does not change.
After this, Anton Zeilinger started working on entangled quantum states, using the best of fine instruments and a long series of experiments. Among other things, his research group has demonstrated a phenomenon called quantum teleportation, which makes it possible to transfer a quantum state from a particle to a distance.
Anders Irbck, chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics, says that with this it became clear that a new kind of quantum technology was emerging. We can see that the work of the laureates on Entangled States is very important even beyond basic questions about the interpretation of quantum mechanics.
For this important work, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on Tuesday selected Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger for the 2022 Nobel Prize for Physics. Alain is a professor at Paris Saclay University and cole Polytechnique Palazzo France in France, while John F. Clauser is a Research Physicist at the US. Anton Gellinger is a professor at the University of Vienna, Austria.
Madison’s Nobel on Hominin and Human Evolution
Born in 1955 in Stockholm, Sweden, Svante Pbo is being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for the year 2022. He is now at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, established in 1999 himself. He is also working as an assistant professor at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Japan. He was awarded the Nobel because he made discoveries related to the extinct hominins and the evolutionary genome of humans. Now you must be curious that what is the name of this hominin and genome, so don’t worry, we will tell you what it is and what Professor Paibo has done on it.
Humanoid or hominin which we also call orangutan. It is the name of an animal family that includes all the species of monkeys that are human or human-like. These include the lineage of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. Some human-like species such as Australopithecus have become extinct. Now let’s talk about the genome. The sequence of all the chromosomes ie genes present in the DNA of any organism is called genome. Gene scientists believe that once the structure of all the genes of a human race is known, then it will be possible to predict all the biological events and somatic traits of human life on the basis of the gene horoscope. However, this is not an easy task, because there are thousands of millions of living cells in the human body. On this, Svante Pabo has taken a step forward.
A person is always curious to know where he came from. What is his relationship with those who came before humans? Why is the evolution of human race different from Homo sapiens and other hominins today? To some extent, through his research, Pabo has made this seemingly impossible task possible. He has sequenced the genome of the Neanderthal, which has an important place in the development of the human race. Neanderthals died out 40,000 years ago, but their DNA never remained on Earth. These are extinct relatives of the present man.
Pabo has also discovered its previously unknown hominin Denisova. Pabo also found in his discovery that gene transfer from these now extinct hominins to Homo sapiens occurred after migration out of Africa about 70,000 years ago. The physiological relevance of this ancient flow of genes to today’s humans is of particular importance. For example, it can be known how our immune system reacts to infections. With this, knowing better the effect of infections on the human body, they can be treated in the best way. Pabo’s fundamental research gave rise to an entirely new scientific theory in paleontology. By discovering the genetic differences that set all living humans apart from extinct hominins, they have given a basis for how we have reached the status of a special human.
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